Pearl- apple pie

Primary sources:

Ferree, D.C., and I. Warrington. Apples : Botany, Production and Uses. 1st ed. Cambridge: CABI, 2003.

Ribeiro-Santos, R., Andrade, M., Madella, D., Martinazzo, A. P., de Aquino Garcia Moura, L., de Melo, N. R., & Sanches-Silva, A. (2017). Revisiting an ancient spice with medicinal purposes: Cinnamon. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 62, 154–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.02.011

Anastopoulo, Rossi. Sweet Land of Liberty : A History of America in 11 Pies. New York: Abrams Press, 2022.

McWilliams, Mark. The Story behind the Dish Fifty Classic American Foods. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2012.

Mariani, John. Apple Pie and Cheddar Cheese. Restaurant Hospitality. Vol. 79. Cleveland: Informa, 1995.

Mary G. Phillips, Eat Apples, (New York: Cornell University, 1940) 15-17 

Katharine W. Harris and Marion A. Wood, Meals for Many, (New York: Cornell University, 1942) 280-281

Secondary sources:

Stavely, Keith., and Kathleen. Fitzgerald. America’s Founding Food The Story of New England Cooking. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Palmatier, Robert. Food : A Dictionary of Literal and Nonliteral Terms. 1st ed. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2000.

Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “’as American as apple pie’ in apple pie, n.”, September 2023. <https://doi.org/10.1093/OED/5628352905>

Hatic, Dana. “A Brief History of McDonald’s Apple Pie.” Eater, May 8, 2017. https://www.eater.com/2017/5/8/14486084/history-mcdonalds-apple-pie.

Strange , Susan B. “Guide to the Pillsbury Company Bake-off Collection.” Pillsbury Company Bake-Off Collection | Collection: NMAH.AC.0690. Accessed December 1, 2023. https://sova.si.edu/record/NMAH.AC.0690#:~:text=The%20first%20contest%2C%20held%20in,in%20fact%2C%20the%2038th%20contest.

Sarah Graves – Hamburger


“Charlie” Statue and Depot Street, Seymour Community Historical Society, accessed December 4, 2023, http://www.seymourhistory.org/news/?id=36  

Doug, Moe. “Seymour is Burger Capital – Period.” Madison (WI) Capital Times. January 18, 2007. Accessed November 31, 2023. Nexis Uni. 

Driscoll, Charles B. “New York Day by Day. Imperial Valley Press (El Centro, CA), March 16, 1938. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92070146/1938-03-16/ed-1/seq-6/ 

Glasse, Hannah. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. Alexandria, Virginia: Cotton & Stewart, 1805. Accessed November 19, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/item/05005034/. 

Hershey, Robert. “David Edgerton, 90, a Burger King Founder Who Sold His Stake for a Bargain, Dies.” New York City (NY) Pro Quest, April 17, 2018. Accessed December 2, 2023. The New York Times.   

King, Charles. “Old Auto, Slice of Cheese Start L.C. Sternberger in $30,000 ‘Rite Spot’ Chain.” Pasadena (CA) Pasadena Post, June 23, 1931. Accessed November 30, 2023. https://www.newspapers.com/article/the-pasadena-post-rite-spot-lionel-ste/44840597/ 

Siler, Julia. “White Castle’s Search for Youth: Old White Castle Chain Seeks a Youthful Image.” New York City (NY) Pro Quest, May 7, 1988. Accessed December 2, 2023. The New York Times. 


Ozersky, Josh. The Hamburger. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008. 

Lola Messick- SPAM

Primary Sources:

“For a ‘take it easy day’… serve SPAM-BEAN BAKE.” Evening Star, May 25, 1952. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045462/1952-05-25/ed-1/seq-115/#date1=1952&index=0&rows=20&words=SPAM&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=&date2=1952&proxtext=spam&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1

Hormel Food, LLC. “SPAM® Museum in Minnesota: SPAM® Brand.” Spam. Accessed November 16, 2023. https://www.spam.com/museum. 

Monty Python Flying Circus. Season 2. Episode 12, “Spam.” Direct by Monty Python. Aired December 15, 1970, on BBC. Accessed on December 5, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=anwy2MPT5RE

“Start with SPAM for a Super Sandwich.” Evening Star, June 7, 1953. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045462/1953-06-07/ed-1/seq-148/.

Secondary Sources:

Koikari, Mire. “Love! Spam: Food, Military, and Empire in Post- World War 2 Okinawa.” In Devouring Japan: Global Perspectives on Japanese Culinary Identity, edited by Nancy K. Stalker, 171-86. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2018. Accessed November 15, 2023. https://academic.oup.com/book/6289. 

Wyman, Carolyn. “Spam.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia for Food and Drink in America, edited by Andrew Smith, 342-43. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013. https://www.oxfordreference.com/display/10.1093/acref/9780199734962.001.0001/acref-9780199734962-e-0833?rskey=717ESu&result=1081. 

Tim McCarthy – Jell-O Timeline

Eddington, Jane. 1924. “TRIBUNE COOK BOOK: GELATINS SALADS.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963), Jun 09, 22. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/tribune-cook-book/docview/180548215/se-2.

GELATIN DESSERT IS COOL TO MAKE AND COOL TO EAT: FLAVORS BLEND TASTILY WITH FRESH FRUIT.” 1940.Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963), Aug 02, 16. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/gelatin-dessert-is-cool-make-eat/docview/176503355/se

Julia Segal; Breaking the Mold: How Jell-O Helped Women Get Creative in the Kitchen. Gastronomica 1 May 2023; 23 (2): 71–79. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/gfc.2023.23.2.71

Meade, Mary. 1955. “Blue Cheese and Gelatin Dessert is Novel: It is Simple to Fix for a Party.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963), Jan 22, 13. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/blue-cheese-gelatin-dessert-is-novel/docview/178774976/se-2

MRS, W. C. PORTER. 1907. “TESTED RECIPES: GELATIN AMBROSIA.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1922), Jul 31, 9. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/tested-recipes/docview/173380663/se-2.

Tarulevicz, Dr. N. (n.d.). Jell-O: America’s most famous Dessert: At home everywhere. Omeka RSS. https://apps.lib.umich.edu/online-exhibits/exhibits/show/jell-o

Melissa Cervantes A- Lasagna


Primary Sources :

Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.), 17 Dec. 1959. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045462/1959-12-17/ed-1/seq-48/>

“Display Ad 165 — no Title.” New York Times (1923-), Oct 12, 1963. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/display-ad-165-no-title/docview/116614466/se-2.

The Great Arrival  :  Italian  :  Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History  :  Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress  :  Library of Congress. The Library of Congress. (n.d.). https://www.loc.gov/classroom-materials/immigration/italian/the-great-arrival/

Secondary Sources :

Serventi, Silvano, and Françoise Sabban. Pasta : The Story of a Universal Food. Translated by Antony Shugaar. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. https://doi.org/10.7312/serv12442.

“Wrapped & Stuffed Foods; Proceedings.” Reference & Research Book News. Portland: Ringgold, Inc, 2013.

Avianna Hoffman Timeline – Chili Con Carne



Fleischhauer, Carl. Chili Beans. , 1978. June. Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/ncr001637/.

Highsmith, Carol M, photographer. Ben’s Chili Bowl, Washington, D.C. United States Washington D.C. District of Columbia Washington D.C, None. [Between 1980 and 2006] Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/2011630986/.

Highsmith, Carol M, photographer. Mission San Jose, San Antonio, Texas. United States San Antonio Texas, None. [Between 1980 and 2006] Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/2011631194/.

Jameson, W. C. The Ultimate Chili Cookbook : History, Geography, Fact, and Folklore of Chili. Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press, 1999. https://search-ebscohost-com.umw.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=28266&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Sheraton, Mimi. “Choosing the Best Chili in a can.” New York Times (1923-), Sep 04, 1982. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/choosing-best-chili-can/docview/122009840/se-2.

Sheridan, Margaret. “Cincinnati-Style Chili Parlor a Sweet Success: CHEAP EATS.” Chicago Tribune (1963-1996), Jan 04, 1985. https://umw.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/cincinnati-style-chili-parlor-sweet-success/docview/176212027/se-2.

“Our History.” Hormel Foods, November 7, 2022. https://www.hormelfoods.com/about/our-history/.

“Our Story: Over Sixty Years of Washington DC History.” Ben’s Chili Bowl. Accessed December 8, 2023. https://benschilibowl.com/history.


Chase, Scott. Ben’s Chili Bowl: A Spicy Landmark in the Nation’s CapitalFamily Business. Vol. 31. Philadelphia: Family Business Publishing Company, 2020.

Gabaccia, Donna R., and Jeffrey M. Pilcher. “‘Chili Queens’ and Checkered Tablecloths.” Radical History Review, no. 110 (Spring 2011): 109–26. doi:10.1215/01636545-2010-028.

Hormel Debuts Chili Master ProductsThe National Provisioner. Vol. 222. BNP Media, 2008.

Lloyd, Timothy Charles. “The Cincinnati Chili Culinary Complex.” Western Folklore 40, no. 1 (1981): 28–40. https://doi.org/10.2307/1499846.

Mishler, Craig. “The Texas Chili Cook-Off: An Emergent Foodway Festival.” Journal of Popular Culture. 17, no. 3 (1983). https://doi.org/info:doi/.

Emma Fleeharty


Frost, James B.. Artichoke Trail : A Guide to Vegetarian Restaurants, Organic Food Stores & Farmers’ Markets in the US. Middleburg: Hunter Publishing, 1999. Accessed November 17, 2023. ProQuest Ebook Central.

Growing in flavor! (1902, July 20). The Savannah Morning News, p. 2. Retrieved December 3, 2023, from https://www.loc.gov/resource/sn89053684/1902-07-20/ed-1/?sp=2&amp;st=pdf&amp;pdfPage=undefined.

Hurley, Jayne, and Stephen Schmidt. 1994. “Meatless in Burgerland.” Nutrition Action Health Letter 21 (2): 10. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=9406241330&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Johnson, Elaine. 1994. “How about a Veggie Burger?” Sunset, January. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rgm&AN=503211213&site=ehost-live&scope=site.


Alcorta, Alexandra, Adrià Porta, Amparo Tárrega, María Dolores Alvarez, and M. Pilar Vaquero. 2021. “Foods for Plant-Based Diets: Challenges and Innovations” Foods 10, no. 2: 293. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020293

Maningat, C. C., Jeradechachai, T., & Buttshaw, M. R. (2022). Textured wheat and pea proteins for meat alternative applications. Cereal Chemistry, 99(1), 37–66. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10503

Bryce Ridge Timeline- Spaghetti and Meatballs

Primary sources

McNamee, G. L. (2023, November 16). Spaghetti | Description, Origins, pasta Types, & Uses. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/spaghetti

Wikipedia contributors. (2023, November 18). Lady and the Tramp. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_and_the_Tramp

Montanari, M. (2021). A Short History of Spaghetti with Tomato Sauce.

Wikipedia contributors. (2023b, December 1). Spaghetti and meatballs. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spaghetti_and_meatballs

Secondary sources

Avey, T. (2014, July 16). Uncover the history of pasta | The History Kitchen | PBS Food. PBS Food. https://www.pbs.org/food/the-history-kitchen/uncover-the-history-of-pasta/

History of Spaghetti – origin and evolution. (n.d.). http://www.historyofspaghetti.com/#google_vignette

Larson, S. (2022, June 8). A history of spaghetti and meatballs. Escoffier Online. https://www.escoffieronline.com/a-history-of-spaghetti-and-meatballs/

Suzanne Ferraro Pizza


Eric S., Perry Schwartz, Luciano Gaudiosi, Vince Albano, Mary Ann Rouse, John Alongi, Doug Fricano, et al. Pizza Hall of Fame, July 12, 1970. https://pizzahalloffame.com/.

Helstosky, Carol.  Pizza: A Global History (Edible), Reaktion Books, (2012).


Marino, Michael P., and Margaret S. Crocco. “Pizza: Teaching US History through Food and Place.” Social Studies (Philadelphia, Pa : 1934) 106, no. 4 (2015): 149–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/00377996.2015.1020354.

 Mattozzi, Antonio, and Zachary Nowak. Inventing the Pizzeria : a History of Pizza Making in Naples. London, England: Bloomsbury Academic, An imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2020. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781474256322.

Emily Mousso- Manicotti

Primary Sources

Latini, Antonio. Lo Scalco Alla Moderna. Biblioteca Culinaria, 1993.

Sigleo, Helene. “Manicotti or Angel’s Wings.” Unpublished manuscript. 1940s.

“History.” Rosina Food Products. Accessed December 5, 2023. https://www.rosina.com/about-rosina/history/.

Secondary Sources

Lucey, John A. “Acid- and acid/heat coagulated cheese.” Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, vol. 3, 2022, pp. 6–14, https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-818766-1.00073-8.

Choi, Alvin. “History of the Tomato in Italy and China: Tracing the Role of Tomatoes in Italian and Chinese Cooking.” Noodles on the Silk Road, 3 July 2018, scholarblogs.emory.edu/noodles/2018/07/03/history-of-the-tomato-in-italy-and-china-tracing-the-role-of-tomatoes-in-italian-and-chinese-cooking/.

“The Great Arrival: Italian: Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History: Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress: Library of Congress.” The Library of Congress, www.loc.gov/classroom-materials/immigration/italian/the-great-arrival/. Accessed 16 Nov. 2023.

“Weekend Recipes: Manicotti, a Souffle.” New York Times, August 9, 1968. Accessed 16 Nov. 2023. https://www.proquest.com/docview/118351862?pq-origsite=primo&parentSessionId=jpFeOuGDKL5CrlgpYTU5ZUEkWuSllibzrZL%2FS5AnfxA%3D.

Kathy Martinez

Anna McCandless

Primary Sources

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA SAN FRANCISCO DIVISION. THE HV FOOD PRODUCTS COMPANY, a Delaware Corporation, Plaintiff, v. TESSEMAE’S L.L.C., a Maryland Limited Liability Company, Defendant. 15 Dec. 2016, advance.lexis.com/r/documentprovider/kv88k/attachment/data?attachmentid=urn:contentItem:5MDD-K2S1-DXDT-G55N-00000-00&attachmenttype=PDF&attachmentname=Click%20to%20view%20PDF%20document&origination=BlobStore&sequencenumber=1&ishotdoc=false&docTitle=&pdmfid=1516831&#page=. Accessed 28 Nov. 2023.

United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma. Sumter v. Wal-Mart Stores E., L.P., 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 48580. 4 May 2011, advance.lexis.com/document/?pdmfid=1516831&crid=ed4f006b-587b-4ce2-a804-96b7ed3ded91&pddocfullpath=%2Fshared%2Fdocument%2Fcases%2Furn%3AcontentItem%3A52T1-83K1-F04F-204P-00000-00&pdcontentcomponentid=6420&pdshepid=urn%3AcontentItem%3A52TF-S401-DXC7-H2FX-00000-00&pdteaserkey=sr1&pditab=allpods&ecomp=tmnyk&earg=sr1&prid=017c1ac9-c7f8-4985-931d-915e78617430. Accessed 28 Nov. 2023.

United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, Fort Worth Division. Waples-Platter Cos. V. General Foods Corp., 439 F. Supp. 551. 19 Oct. 1997, advance.lexis.com/document/?pdmfid=1516831&crid=f46b9032-75fb-4ff3-ac47-d4daecbebb27&pddocfullpath=%2Fshared%2Fdocument%2Fcases%2Furn%3AcontentItem%3A3S4N-SWS0-0054-74MF-00000-00&pdcontentcomponentid=6415&pdshepid=urn%3AcontentItem%3A7XWR-0FH1-2NSD-P2PJ-00000-00&pdteaserkey=sr0&pditab=allpods&ecomp=tmnyk&earg=sr0&prid=6883a622-2b86-44fa-ac48-3dcbd5eab494. Accessed 28 Nov. 2023.

United States District Court for the Southern District of Georgia, Augusta Division. Jackson v. Columbia County Det. Ctr. Food Serv. Dep’t, 2008 U.S. Dist. 20 Feb. 2008, advance.lexis.com/document/?pdmfid=1516831&crid=a99a7c71-4439-449e-8bc5-c3d005abee1f&pddocfullpath=%2Fshared%2Fdocument%2Fcases%2Furn%3AcontentItem%3A803V-CNB0-YB0M-X0K5-00000-00&pdcontentcomponentid=6421&pdshepid=urn%3AcontentItem%3A8052-2BW1-2NSD-N0DW-00000-00&pdteaserkey=sr3&pditab=allpods&ecomp=tmnyk&earg=sr3&prid=017c1ac9-c7f8-4985-931d-915e78617430. Accessed 28 Nov. 2023.

Secondary Sources

Camacho Flinois, Julie, et al. “Effects of Replacing Buttermilk with Yogurt Acid Whey in Ranch Dressing.” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 102, no. 9, Sept. 2019, pp. 7874–7883. ProQuest, www.proquest.com/docview/2258157390/664D1CBA6CFC4CD9PQ/5?accountid=12299, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-16158. Accessed 27 May 2020.

Hulsebus-Colvin, Julie. “Dressing Renal Patients for Success, Ranch-Style.” Journal of Renal Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. e1–e5, www.jrnjournal.org/article/S1051-2276(14)00203-9/fulltext#secsectitle0025, https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2014.10.006. Accessed 31 May 2020.

Muriana, P.M., and L. Kanach. “Use of Nisaplin to Inhibit Spoilage Bacteria in Buttermilk Ranch Dressing.” ProQuest, Journal of Food Protection, 1995, www.proquest.com/docview/16980960/664D1CBA6CFC4CD9PQ/4?accountid=12299. Accessed 29 Nov. 2023.

Waite, J.G., et al. “Production of Shelf-Stable Ranch Dressing Using High-Pressure Processing.” Journal of Food Science, vol. 74, no. 2, Mar. 2009, pp. M83–M93. ProQuest, www.proquest.com/docview/20543909/664D1CBA6CFC4CD9PQ/3?accountid=12299, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.01064.x. Accessed 15 Sept. 2020.

Sophia Burns

Anichs7 (2014). Foods worth Saving: Broccoli Cheese Soup. https://foodsworthsaving.wordpress.com/2014/11/20/broccoli-cheese-soup/

Cook’s Info. (2021) Campbell’s Cream of Broccoli Soup Introduced 2nd January. https://www.cooksinfo.com/campbells-cream-of-broccoli-soup-anniversary

Chicago Tribune (1947). Mary Meade’s Recipe this week: Cream of Broccoli Soup. https://www.proquest.com/docview/177275197/pageviewPDF/CB1E00CD52E4853PQ/4?accountid=12299

Denny, C. (2021) Panera’s Broccoli Cheddar Soup. https://www.the-girl-who-ate-everything.com/panera-broccoli-cheese-soup/

Westbrooke, E. (2022). Easy Broccoli Cheese Soup. https://www.sweetteaandthyme.com/broccoli-cheddar-soup-panera-copycat/#:~:text=📖%20Recipe-,Origins%20of%20Broccoli%20Cheese%20Soup,Eat%20Broccoli%27%20recipe%20contest%20campaign

Cream of Broccoli Soup. Academic Accelerator Encyclopedia. https://academic-accelerator.com/encyclopedia/cream-of-broccoli-soup